Endomembrane System includes: Tutorial

The endomembrane system includes four functionally co-ordinated single membrane bound organelles. Explore how they work.

EMS: an intra-cellular transport

endomembrane system includes

Endomembrane system includes E.R., Golgi apparatus, Lysosome and vacuole. All of them are together called the GERL cycle. GERL means golgi body-ER-Lysosome cycle, which is the main intra-cellular transport.

All the organelles of EMS are single membrane-bound. Protein and lipid formed by RER and SER are transported through ER to GB to Lysosome and finally targeted.


It is a network of membranes spread throughout the cytoplasm. ER exists in 3 forms Cisternae, vesicles and Tubules. In actively protein synthesising cells, the number of cisternae are more. The luminal space of tubule of ER divides cytoplasm into itraluminal and extra-luminal space.

ER is of 2 types on the basis of presence of ribosomes i.e. Rough ER with ribosomes and Smooth ER without ribosomes. RER synthesizes secretory proteins and SER synthesizes lipids.

Golgi Apparatus:

It is also a network of membranous structures formed of flattened disc-like cisternae, tubules and golgian vesicles. GB is secretory organelle plentily found in secretory tissues. GB is called golgi complex in animal cell and in plant cell the non connected cisternae are called as dictyosome.

GB is the site of processing, modification and targeting of biomolecules. GB synthesizes glycoprotein and glycolipid.


It is a small vesicular packaged vesicle filled with digestive enzymes called acid hydrolases. Also lysosome exist in 4 forms, such as Primary lysosome, Secondary lysosome, Residual body and Autophagic vacuole.

Primary Lysosome has inactive enzymes. When the primary lysosome joins with food vacuole, it is called digestive vacuole or secondary lysosome. After digestion lysosome containing undigested matter is called residual body.

Most important is the suicidal bag or Autophagic vacuole which destroys the non-functioning organelles and even dead cells.


These membrane bound vesicles may be filled with sap (Sap vacuole), water(Contractile vacuole),Gas(gas vacuole) and even filled with gas(gas vacuole).

Learn more



Schedule a Visit